A pterygium is a wedge-shaped raised area that starts on the white of the eye but can grow across the cornea, at the front of the eye, to cover the iris. If you are in direct, bright sunlight often - particularly near water - you have a higher chance of developing a pterygium.
A pterygium can cause discomfort, like gritty dry eyes and it can also cause blurry vision. Occasionally pterygiums will become very red and irritated, especially when it’s windy or dusty.
If the pterygium crosses the cornea too far, more significant changes to the eye can occur. It is therefore advised that you have it monitored by an optometrist who can provide lubricants if the eye is irritated or refer for removal if suitable.
A pinguecula is similary caused by exposure to uv. It is more so a small bump on the white of your eye which can cause dry eye problems. Monitor the size and colour and report to an optometrist if you notice any changes.
Wearing sunglasses, and a hat, is the best way to prevent a pterygium or a pinguecula.