Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve. The optic nerve is responsible for sending the visual information your eyes receive to the visual processing centre in your brain. As a result, a deterioration of the optic nerve will lead to poorer vision.
In many cases, glaucoma is an asymptomatic disease, meaning that the disease can progress with little to no symptoms. That is why it is important to have a regular eye examination, especially if there is a family history of glaucoma.
Diagnosis of glaucoma is more accurate with current technological advances in visual field testing and OCT imaging (see equipment, below). Timely diagnosis is one of the most important factors in maintaining vision in glaucoma.
Treatment is usually targeted at lowering the pressure inside the eyes. This can be done using eye drop medications, laser, or surgery.